Vol. 29/2020 Issue 59
okładka czasopisma Child Neurology
powiększenie okładki
Journal Info

CHILD NEUROLOGY

Journal of the Polish Society of Child Neurologists

PL ISSN 1230-3690
e-ISSN 2451-1897
DOI 10.20966
Semiannual


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Somnambulizm – opis przypadku


Somnambulism – case report




Katedra i Klinika Neurologii Wieku Rozwojowego Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu

Neurol Dziec 2011; 20, 40: 91-99
Full text PDF Somnambulizm – opis przypadku



STRESZCZENIE
Celem pracy jest przedstawienie różnicowania epizodów somnambulizmu od innych zaburzeń czynności ruchowych w czasie snu na podstawie opisu przypadku. W diagnostyce różnicowej somnambulizmu należy wziąć pod uwagę inne parasomnie, które w obrazie klinicznym mogą przypominać epizody somnambulizmu (lęki nocne, koszmary senne, zaburzenia zachowania w fazie snu REM) oraz nocne napady padaczkowe z płata czołowego i nocne napady panicznego lęku. Somnambulizm należy do parasomnii i wraz z lękami nocnymi oraz z wybudzeniami z dezorientacją tworzy podgrupę zaburzeń wybudzania. Epizody somnambulizmu występują głównie podczas snu głębokiego (głównie stadia 3 i 4 NREM, czasem w stadium 2) w pierwszej połowie nocy i objawiają się chodzeniem ze zmiennym stanem świadomości oraz zaburzeniami własnej oceny. Epizody często poprzedzone są siadaniem na łóżku i rozglądaniem się wkoło z dezorientacją. Rozpowszechnienie somnambulizmu w populacji dziecięcej szacuje się na około 17% ze szczytem występowania w wieku 11–12 lat i następnie z wiekiem liczba chorych stopniowo maleje. Rozpoznanie somnambulizmu oparte jest na kryteriach Międzynarodowej Klasyfikacji Zaburzeń Snu z 2005 r. Badanie wideo EEG-polisomnografia nie jest konieczne do postawienia ostatecznego rozpoznania, ale uznawane jest za „złoty standard” w diagnostyce różnicowej epizodów nocnych.

Słowa kluczowe: somnambulizm, parasomnie, nocne napady padaczkowe z płata czołowego, nocne napady panicznego lęku


ABSTRACT
The goal of this article is to present the differentiation of the episodes of sleepwalking from other movement disorders during sleep based on the description of the case report. The differentiation should take into account other parasomnias, where the clinical picture may resemble episodes of sleepwalking (night fears, nightmares, abnormal behavior during REM sleep), nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and nocturnal panic attacks. Somnambulism is a parasomnia and together with sleep terrors and confousial arousal forms the subgroup of arousal disorders. Episodes occur on NREM sleep (stages 3 and 4, occasionally stage 2) during the first half of the night and they culminate in walking around in an altered state of consciousness and impaired judgment. Episodes are often preceded by sitting down on the bed and looking around in confusion. The prevalence of sleepwalking in the pediatric population is estimated at approximately 17% with the peak of incidence at the age of 11–12 years and then the number of patients gradually decreases. The diagnosis of sleepwalking is placed under the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders in 2005. Study video-EEG polysomnography is not necessary to bring the final diagnosis, but it is the “golden standard” in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal episodes.

Key words: somnambulism, parasomnias, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, nocturnal panic attacks


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