Vol. 29/2020 Issue 59
okładka czasopisma Child Neurology
powiększenie okładki
Journal Info

CHILD NEUROLOGY

Journal of the Polish Society of Child Neurologists

PL ISSN 1230-3690
e-ISSN 2451-1897
DOI 10.20966
Semiannual


Powrót

Cytokine detection in cerebrospinal fluid in central nervous system diseases in children


Stężenie cytokin w płynie mózgowo -rdzeniowym w przebiegu chorób neurologicznych u dzieci




Department of Infectious Diseases and Child Neurology
University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, ul. Szpitalna 27/33, 60-572 Poznań

https://doi.org/10.20966/chn.2020.59.468
Neurol Dziec 2020; 29, 59: 45-50
Full text PDF Cytokine detection in cerebrospinal fluid in central nervous system
diseases in children



ABSTRACT
Cytokine activation and inflammatory process is a result of complex interaction in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system disorders (CNS). Both proinflammatory and anti- -inflammatory cytokines are produced during immune response. Cytokines measurement in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be used as an additional tool in patients assessment. In the state of CNS infection, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α levels are typically elevated. Cytokine level alterations after antibiotic therapy are not fully elucidated. Some cytokines, like IL-6, are not only an inflammatory parameter, being elevated in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The role of TNF-α is known in neurodegenerative disorders, where levels of proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6, are increased both in serum and in CSF. Assessment of cytokine levels in CSF may be an additional evaluation tool in the management of CNS disorders in children, especially those of inflammatory background. Therapeutic agents for specific cytokines could be a future tool in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Key words: cortisol, autism spectrum disorder, children


STRESZCZENIE
Aktywacja cytokin i rozwój procesu zapalnego jest wynikiem złożonej interakcji w patogenezie wielu schorzeń ośrodkowego układu nerwowego. Zarówno cytokiny o działaniu prozapalnym, jak i przeciwzapalnym są wytwarzane podczas odpowiedzi immunologicznej. Pomiar cytokin w płynie mózgowo-rdzeniowym może być stosowany jako dodatkowe narzędzie w procesie diagnostycznym pacjentów z chorobami OUN. W zakażeniach OUN o różnej etiologii, stężenia IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 i TNF-α są zazwyczaj podwyższone. Zmiany ich poziomu pod wpływem antybiotykoterapii nie są w pełni wyjaśnione. Niektóre cytokiny, jak IL-6 są nie tylko parametrem zapalnym, ulegają również podwyższeniu stanach chorobowych o etiologii niezapalnej, jak np. u pacjentów z krwotokiem podpajęczynówkowym. Rola TNF-α jest znana w zaburzeniach neurodegeneracyjnych, gdzie zarówno w surowicy, jak i w CSF zwiększa się poziom czynników prozapalnych, w tym TNF-α, IL-1 i IL-6. Ocena poziomu cytokin w płynie mózgowo-rdzeniowym pacjenta może być dodatkowym narzędziem oceny w leczeniu zaburzeń ośrodkowego układu nerwowego u dzieci, zwłaszcza tych o podłożu zapalnym. Metody leczenia wpływające na stężenia określonych cytokin mogą być przyszłym narzędziem w leczeniu chorób zapalnych OUN.

Słowa kluczowe: cytokiny, płyn mózgowo-rdzeniowy, dzieci, markery.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] 
Hühmer A.F., Biringer R.G., Amato H., et al.: Protein Analysis in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Physiological Aspects, Current Progress and Future Challenges. Dis Markers 2006; 22: 3–26.
[2] 
Petry F., Torzewski M., Bohl J., et al.: Early Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba Infection during Routine Cytological Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 1903–1904.
[3] 
Pfisterer W.: Early diagnosis of external ventricular drainage infection: results of a prospective study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 929–932.
[4] 
Dougherty J.M., Jones J.: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures and analysis. Ann Emerg Med 1986; 15: 317–323.
[5] 
van de Beek D., de Gans J., Spanjaard L., et al.: Clinical Features and Prognostic Factors in Adults with Bacterial Meningitis. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1849–1859.
[6] 
Dalal I., Tzhori S., Somekh E., et al.: Cytokine profile in cerebrospinal fluid of children with echovirus type 4 meningitis. Pediatr Neurol 2003; 29: 312–316.
[7] 
Cepok S., Zhou D., Vogel F., et al.: The immune response at onset and during recovery from Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 849–855.
[8] 
Cerar T., Ogrinc K., Lotrič-Furlan S., et al.: Diagnostic Value of Cytokines and Chemokines in Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013; 20: 1578–8154.
[9] 
Zheng Y., Humphry M., Maguire J.J., et al.: Intracellular interleukin-1 receptor 2 binding prevents cleavage and activity of interleukin-1α, controlling necrosis-induced sterile inflammation. Immunity 2013; 38: 285–925.
[10] 
Peters V.A., Joesting J.J., Freund G.G.: IL-1 receptor 2 (IL-1R2) and its role in immune regulation. Brain Behav Immun 2013; 32: 1–8.
[11] 
Goshen I., Yirmiya R.: Interleukin-1 (IL-1): a central regulator of stress responses. Front Neuroendocrinol 2009; 30: 30–45.
[12] 
Seppi D., Puthenparampil M., Federle L., et al.: Cerebrospinal fluid IL- 1βcorrelates with cortical pathology load in multiple sclerosis at clinical onset. J Neuroimmunol 2014; 270: 56–60.
[13] 
Ye L., Huang Y., Zhao L., et al.: IL-1β and TNF-α induce neurotoxicity through glutamate production: a potential role for neuronal glutaminase. J Neurochem 2013; 125: 897–908.
[14] 
Song C., Zhang Y., Dong Y.: Acute and subacute IL-1β administrations differentially modulate neuroimmune and neurotrophic systems: possible implications for neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation 2013; 10: 826 [14 screen pages] Address:[15 screen pages] Address: https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1742-2094-10-59#citeas.
[15] 
Sulik A., Kroten A., Wojtkowska M., et al.: Increased Levels of Cytokines in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Aseptic Meningitis Caused by Mumps Virus and Echovirus 30. Scand J Immunol 2014; 79: 68–72.
[16] 
Rossi S., Furlan R., De Chiara V., et al.: Interleukin-1β causes synaptic hyperexcitability in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2012; 71: 76–83.
[17] 
Popescu B.F.G., Bunyan RF, Parisi JE, et al.: A case of multiple sclerosis presenting with inflammatory cortical demyelination. Neurology 2011; 76: 1705–1710.
[18] 
Maimone D., Gregory S., Arnason B.G., et al.: Cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 1991; 32: 67–74.
[19] 
Spulber S., Bartfai T., Schultzberg M.: IL-1/IL-1RA balance in the brain revisited - evidence from transgenic mouse models. Brain Behav Immun 2009; 23: 573–579.
[20] 
Griffin É.W., Skelly D.T., Murray C.L., et al.: Cyclooxygenase-1-dependent prostaglandins mediate susceptibility to systemic inflammation-induced acute cognitive dysfunction. J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci 2013; 33: 15248–15258.
[21] 
Kwon A., Kwak B.O., Kim K., et al.: Cytokine levels in febrile seizure patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Seizure 2018; 59: 5-10.
[22] 
Kitazawa M., Cheng D., Tsukamoto M., et al.: Blocking Interleukin-1 Signaling Rescues Cognition, Attenuates Tau Pathology, and Restores Neuronal β-Catenin Pathway Function in an Alzheimer’s Disease Model. J Immunol Baltim Md 2011; 187: 6539–6549.
[23] 
Oprica M., Hjorth E., Spulber S., et al.: Studies on brain volume, Alzheimer- related proteins and cytokines in mice with chronic overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist. J Cell Mol Med 2007; 11: 810–825.
[24] 
Emsley H.C.A., Smith C.J., Georgiou R.F., et al.: A randomised phase II study of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in acute stroke patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76: 1366–1372.
[25] 
Oygur N., Sonmez O., Saka O., et al.: Predictive value of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin- 1βconcentrations on outcome of full term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998; 79: F190–3.
[26] 
Aly H., Khashaba M.T., El-Ayouty M., et al.: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and outcomes of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Brain Dev 2006; 28: 178–182.
[27] 
. Boeer K., Vogelsang H., Deufel T., et al.: Immediate diagnosis of ventriculits: evaluation of parameters independent of microbiological culture. Acta Neurochir 2011; 153: 1797–1805.
[28] 
McCracken G.H., Mustafa M.M., Ramilo O., et al.: Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin 1-beta and tumor necrosis factor concentrations and outcome from neonatal gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989; 8: 155–159.
[29] 
Low P.S., Lee B.W., Yap H.K., et al.: Inflammatory response in bacterial meningitis: cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Trop Paediatr 1995; 15: 55–59.
[30] 
Vlachogiannis P., Hillered L., Khalil F., et al.: Interleukin-6 Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Severe Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. World Neurosurg 2019; 122: e612–8.
[31] 
Moreno V.P., Subirá D., Meseguer E., et al.: IL-6 as a biomarker of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Biomark Med 2008;2:125–136.
[32] 
Heinrich P.C., Castell J.V., Andus T.: Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response. Biochem J 1990; 265: 621–636.
[33] 
Prasad R., Kapoor R., Srivastava R., et al.: Cerebrospinal Fluid TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in Children With Bacterial Meningitis. Pediatr Neurol 2014; 50: 60–65.
[34] 
Matsuzono Y., Narita M., Akutsu Y., et al.: Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system infections. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84: 879–883.
[35] 
Pinto Junior V.L.L., Rebelo M.C., Gomes R.N., et al.: IL-6 and IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with aseptic meningitis and bacterial meningitis: their potential role as a marker for differential diagnosis. Braz J Infect Dis 2011; 15: 156–158.
[36] 
Azuma H., Tsuda N., Sasaki K., et al.: Clinical significance of cytokine measurement for detection of meningitis. J Pediatr 1997; 131: 463–465. Corresponding author: Anna Mania, Klinika Chorób Zakaźnych i Neurologii Dziecięcej, ul. Szpitalna 27/33, 60-572 Poznań, e-mail: amania@ump.edu.pl, tel. kom: 605034122
[37] 
Buck C., Bundschu J., Gallati H., et al.: Interleukin-6: a sensitive parameter for the early diagnosis of neonatal bacterial infection. Pediatrics 1994; 93: 54–58.
[38] 
Hasegawa S., Matsushige T., Inoue H., et al.: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profile of patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus-associated encephalopathy. Cytokine 2011; 54: 167–172.
[39] 
Ichiyama T., Ito Y., Kubota M., et al.: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines in acute encephalopathy associated with human herpesvirus-6 infection. Brain Dev 2009; 31: 731–738.
[40] 
Winter P.M., Dung N.M., Loan H.T., et al.: Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in humans with Japanese encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 1 listopad 2004; 190: 1618–1626.
[41] 
Protas P., Holownia A., Muszynska-Roslan K., et al.: Cerebrospinal Fluid IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during chemotherapy. Neuropediatrics 2011; 42: 254–256.
[42] 
Engler H., Brendt P., Wischermann J., et al.: Selective increase of cerebrospinal fluid IL-6 during experimental systemic inflammation in humans: association with depressive symptoms. Mol Psychiatry 2017; 22: 1448–5144.
[43] 
. Kothur K., Troedson C., Webster R., et al.: Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokines involved in innate, T cell, and granulocyte inflammation in pediatric focal cerebral arteriopathy. Int J Stroke 2019; 14: 154–158.
[44] 
Srinivasan L., Kilpatrick L., Shah S.S., et al.: Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in infants. Pediatr Res 2016; 80: 566–572.
[45] 
Ichiyama T., Shoji H., Kato M., et al.: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Eur J Pediatr 2002; 161: 133–137.
[46] 
Koedel U., Bernatowicz A., Frei K., et al.: Systemically (but not intrathecally) administered IL-10 attenuates pathophysiologic alterations in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. J Immunol 1996; 157: 185– 191.
[47] 
. Glimaker M., Kragsbjerg P., Forsgren M., et al.: Tumor Necrosis Factor- (TNF ) in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Meningitis of Different Etiologies: High Levels of TNF Indicate Bacterial Meningitis. J Infect Dis 1993; 167: 882–889.
[48] 
Lopez-Cortes L.F., Cruz-Ruiz M., Gomez-Mateos J., et al.: Measurement of Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor- and Interleukin-1 in the CSF of Patients with Meningitis of Different Etiologies: Utility in the Differential Diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 16: 534–539.
[49] 
Taira N., Kamei S., Morita A., et al.: Predictors of a prolonged clinical course in adult patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Intern Med Tokyo Jpn 2009; 48: 89–94.
[50] 
Nakajima W., Ishida A., Lange M.S., et al.: Apoptosis Has a Prolonged Role in the Neurodegeneration after Hypoxic Ischemia in the Newborn Rat. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 7994–8004.
[51] 
Abboud A., Mi Q., Puccio A., et al.: Inflammation Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans: Insights from Data-Driven and Mechanistic Models into Survival and Death. Front Pharmacol 2016 27; 7: 342.
[52] 
. Matsuzono Y., Narita M., Akutsu Y., et. al.: Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system infections. Acta Paediatrica 1995; 84: 879–883.
[53] 
Sato M., Hosoya M., Honzumi K., et al.: Cytokine and Cellular Inflammatory Sequence in Enteroviral Meningitis. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 1103–1107.
[54] 
Ye N., Gong X., Pang L., et al.: Cytokine responses and correlations thereof with clinical profiles in children with enterovirus 71 infections. BMC Infect Dis 2015: 225.
[55] 
Perrella O., Sbreglia C., Perrella M., et al.: Interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: model of immunomodulation in multiple sclerosis. Neurological Research 2006; 28: 193–195.
[56] 
Niwa A., Osuka K., Nakura T., et al.: Interleukin-6, MCP-1, IP-10, and MIG are sequentially expressed in cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neuroinflammation 2016; 13: 217.
Powrót
 

Most downloaded
Semiologiczna i psychiatryczna charakterystyka dzieci z psychogennymi napadami rzekomopadaczkowymi
Neurol Dziec 2018; 27, 55: 11-14
Autyzm dziecięcy – współczesne spojrzenie
Neurol Dziec 2010; 19, 38: 75-78
Obraz bólów głowy w literaturze pięknej i poezji na podstawie wybranych utworów
Neurol Dziec 2016; 25, 50: 9-17

Article tools
Export Citation
Format:

Scholar Google
Articles by:Lubarski K
Articles by:Mania A
Articles by:Mazur-Melewska K
Articles by:Figlerowicz M

PubMed
Articles by:Lubarski K
Articles by:Mania A
Articles by:Mazur-Melewska K
Articles by:Figlerowicz M


Copyright © 2017 by Polskie Towarzystwo Neurologów Dziecięcych